Form is the visual appearance of something. Everything we see has form.
We understand what a form is by how it’s shaped. So we need to look for those basic shapes in the objects we’re drawing, and observe how they relate to each other.
By focusing on primary forms, we not only start understanding how the object is made and what it does, we avoid getting lost in noodley details before we build volume.
It also simplifies our drawing process.
Observe how things are stacked, and where they overlap.
Observe size relationships, angles, and edges. Study how light and shadow work together to reveal the form to you.
It’s easier to communicate a cube or prism than a cylinder or sphere through drawing because they have edges. Edges are abrupt transitions from light to shadow. They are formed when two physical planes intersect. One is lighter and the other darker.
The sharper the edge, the more abrupt and immediate the transition from light to dark.
Light and dark contrasts (value contrast) are key to depicting form with accuracy. So observe the areas or zones of light and dark value. Keep the different value areas simple. Adding too much detail can create confusion.
You should focus on the larger shape breaks between direct light, core shadow, cast shadow, and reflected light.
I discuss these in my article on light logic, which you can read here.
Build structure with prisms and cylinders
image of a bulldog or horse broken into basic forms.
- Begin with a gestural, directional line. This helps establish the form’s position in space.
2 Observe the primary forms:(cubes, spheres, cylinders, and cones) and lay them in around your initial gestural lines.
3) Pay attention to edges. Simplify the light-dark value relationships.
4) Work up to the details.